Aswan High Dam
The Aswan Dam is an embankment dam situated across the Nile River in Aswan, Egypt. Since the 1950s, the name commonly refers to the High Dam, which is larger and newer than the Aswan Low Dam, which was first completed in 1902. Following Egypt's independence from the United Kingdom, the High Dam was constructed between 1960 and 1970. It aimed to increase economic production by further regulating the annual river flooding and providing storage of water for agriculture, and later, to generate hydroelectricity. The dam has had a significant impact on the economy and culture of Egypt.
Before the dams were built, the Nile River flooded each year during late summer, as water flowed down the valley from its East African drainage basin. These floods brought high water and natural nutrients and minerals that annually enriched the fertile soil along the floodplain and delta; this made the Nile valley ideal for farming since ancient times. Because floods vary, in high-water years, the whole crop might be wiped out, while in low-water years widespread drought and famine occasionally occurred. As Egypt's population grew and conditions changed, both a desire and ability developed to control the floods, and thus both protect and support farmland and the economically important cotton crop. With the reservoir storage provided by these dams, the floods could be lessened, and the water could be stored for later release.
The Aswan High Dam is also used to create hydro-electricity for Egypt, In the 1980's this dam was providing half of Egypt's Electricity, but by the 1990's this had fallen as energy demands increased. The electric power capacity of the Aswan High Dam is: 2.1 gigawatts (GW). It consists of 12 Hydro-Generators each rated at 175 MW. Egypt currently has a total installed generating capacity of 16.6 gigawatts (GW) compared to 3.8 GW in 1976, thus the percentage contribution by the High dam has decreased from over half the total electricity generation to less than 13%. This percentage will continue to decrease as more thermal power plants are added. Total capacity expected to be 26 GW by 2010.
Located in Aswan, Egypt, 4 miles south of the old Aswan Dam ,The Aswan High Dam is
- 11,811 feet long
- 3215 feet thick at the base
- 364 feet tall
- the famous Hydroelectric Power Plants in Egypt
- Installed Capacity : 2100 MW (12x175 MW)
- Design Head : 67 m
- Design Discharge : 284 m3/sec/unit
- Turbine type : Francis
- Started to be connect to the grid : Oct .1967
- Max. annual generated energy : 11000 MWh
Facts about Aswan High Dam
- 12 turbines which generate over 10 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity every year
- Construction started on the dam in 1960 and it was completed in 1971
- 30,000 Egyptian people worked day and night to build the Aswan High Dam
Advantages of the Dam
- It is also a hydro-electric power station
- Created many jobs while being built
- Factories also use the water for cooling and for making things
- Plenty of fresh and clean drinking water for the people of Egypt
- The Aswan High Dam has made the River Nile more navigable
- The Aswan High Dam keeps the depth of the water in the Nile at the same level throughout the year – people are safe!
- Farmers use water from the River Nile to irrigate their crops
The Aswan High Dam is 3,830 meters long, 980 meters wide at the base, 40 meters wide at the crest
and 111 meters tall. It contains 43 million cubic meters of material. At maximum, 11,000 cubic metres per second of water can pass through the dam. There are further emergency spillways for an extra 5,000 cubic meters per second and the Toshka Canal links the reservoir to the Toshka Depression. The reservoir, named Lake Nasser, is 550 km long and 35 km at its widest with a surface area of 5,250
square kilometres. It holds 111 cubic kilometers of water.
Aswan Reservoir II
- Installed Capacity : 270 MW (4x67.5 MW)
- Design Head : 20 m
- Design Discharge : 293 m3/sec/unit
- Turbine type : Kaplan
- Started to be connect to the grid : Aug .1985
- Max. annual generated energy : 1800 MWh
- Installed Capacity : 85.68 MW(6x14.28 Mw)
- Design Head : 5.7 m
- Design Discharge : 300 m3/sec/unit
- Turbine type: Kapaln Bulb
- Started to be connect to the grid : July,1993
- Max. annual generated energy : 634
- Installed Capacity : 64 MW ( 4 X 16 MW )
- Design Head : 5.7 m
- Design Discharge : 320 m3/sec/unit
- Turbine type : Kaplan Bulb
- Started to be connect to the grid : Feb, 2008
- Max. annual generated energy : 470 MWh
- it provide the least power among all Hydroelectric Plants in Egypt
Lake Nasser was created behind the Aswan High Dam
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